International Journal of Management, Knowledge and Learning https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl <p>The International Journal of Management, Knowledge and Learning (IJMKL) aims to bring together researchers and practitioners in business, education and other sectors to provide advanced knowledge in the areas of <strong>management</strong>, knowing and <strong>learning in organisations</strong>, <strong>education</strong>, <strong>business</strong>, <strong>social science</strong>, <strong>entrepreneurship</strong>, and <strong>innovation</strong> in businesses, and others.</p> <p>The journal encourages the <strong>exchange of academic research</strong> and provides all those involved in research and practice with new research findings, case examples and discussions. It brings new ideas and offers practical case studies to researchers, practitioners, consultants, and especially <strong>young researchers and doctoral students</strong> worldwide.</p> ToKnowPress en-US International Journal of Management, Knowledge and Learning 2232-5697 Which Leadership Principles Currently Have The Most Appeal: Leadership in the Light of Contemporary Popular Leadership Literature https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/67 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This study aims to identify principles and critical elements of leadership reflected in contemporary popular leadership literature.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> In a quantitative-qualitative study, the main topics of leadership are extracted from business bestseller lists to infer the issues in leadership that have the most significant popular resonance.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Current popular business literature focuses on the leader as a person, respectively, on the personality of the leader, and in particular on transformational leadership, including elements of transactional leadership.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Examining contemporary popular leadership literature and interrogating it for underlying leadership principles and models breaks new ground in scholarly research.</p> Michael Hagemann Copyright (c) 2022 Michael Hagemann https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.125-133 Industry 4.0 and Industry 5.0 from the Lean perspective https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/72 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Despite the significant attention that Industry 4.0 (I4.0) has gained in the last decade, little importance has been given to shop-floor workers' role in effectively implementing these new technologies in production systems. Nowadays, several authors discuss the need to bring workers back to the center of the decision-making about implementing the new technologies in what is being called Industry 5.0 (I5.0). A key factor of using these new concepts is that it must make sense, and the new information generated by these technologies must have a precise use; otherwise, it will be considered waste. The Lean approach is already recognized as the best approach to identify and eliminate waste from production systems. Not only that, but it allows decisions about process improvement to be human-centric. Thus, this article aims to present the main aspects and evolution of I4.0 and I5.0 over time, using the Lean approach as the analysis lenses.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> In order to identify the mains aspects of I4.0 and I5.0, we develop a consistent literature review using the Systematic Search Flow (SSF).</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> As a result, it was possible to identify the evolution from I4.0 to I5.0, In I4.0, the main focus was on developing new technologies, combine them with classic Lean tools (e.g. Kanban 4.0, Poka-Yoke 4.0) and implement Cyber-Physical Systems. In I5.0, the focus is to use these new technologies together with shop floor workers to continuously improve production processes. Not only that, but in I5.0, the protagonist becomes (or return to become) the shop floor workers to lead the improvements, as is in the Toyota Kata approach.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> This work presents a new way of interpreting the progression of concepts from I4.0 to I5.0. In addition, the focus on workers for problem solving is returning to the center of the discussion. Together with the technologies of I4.0, this represents a new area for future research.</p> Raphael Souza Helio Ferenhof Fernando Forcellini Copyright (c) 2022 Souza, R. O., Ferenhof, H. A., Forcellini, F. A. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.145-155 Introducing a Cross-Functional, Customer-Oriented IT-Cooperation-Model Supplementing ITIL https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/60 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Organising the processes of an IT department based on the ITIL framework is a common practice within companies that seek effective and efficient management of their IT incidents and problems. Although ITIL gives structure and guidance to a certain extent, we discovered several issues which were not optimally covered by the blueprint ITIL best practice processes that we are using. Therefore, we designed the "IT-Cooperation-Model" following a Design Science approach to tackle these specific issues. It is intended to supplement the established ITIL processes (in particular the incident and problem management) in a manner that these "cases" which need attention and are raised by one or more affected persons are handled by the most fitting, autonomous team in a highly collaborative manner to achieve customer satisfaction ultimately. Therefore, it was designed based on guiding principles to address and possibly overcome known and common issues in a predominant ticket-based system. This paper describes the motivation and perceived limitations in the pure ITIL processes that led to the IT-Cooperation-Model. We discuss the building principles, the instantiation and the mechanics we employed to continuously improve the model based on retrospectives and surveys, including feedback from customers and participants from previous cases.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> Design of an IT operational model based on a Design Science approach.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Cross-functional team collaboration within the designed operational model improved problem transparency, communication and ownership.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Newly designed IT operational model for managing issues that need attention and cannot be dealt with immediately or addressed appropriately, supplementing standard ITIL processes.</p> Justus Tillmann Holler Jochen Hagen Michael Reimpell Malte Schroller Marius Schlage Copyright (c) 2022 Justus Tillmann Holler, Jochen Hagen, Michael Reimpell, Malte Schroller, Marius Schlage https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-01-30 2022-01-30 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.33-46 Determining Factors of International E-Tutoring https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/64 <div> <p class="Abstract"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Purpose:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> <span class="normaltextrun">Virtual Exchange (VE) enables geographically separated collaboration without the need for physical travel and the use of resources like time and money. The complexity for students participating in VE modules can be reduced by using e-tutors as learning facilitators. In this context, we focus on determining factors for e-tutorial support in international collaborations in higher education and thus cross-cultural and cross-border collaboration of learners in the sense of VE.</span></span></p> </div> <div> <p class="Abstract"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Study design/methodology/approach:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> <span class="normaltextrun">This paper aims to answer the question “Which determinants impact e-tutoring during collaborative and international Virtual Exchange modules?”. Therefore, the results are compiled, analyzed, and synthesized with the help of a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) according to Okoli &amp; Schabram (2010). </span></span></p> </div> <div> <p class="Abstract"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Findings:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> <span class="normaltextrun">The result is a concept matrix of 41 identified determinants of international e-tutoring in higher education, divided into six main categories: responsibilities, competencies, communication, organization, pedagogy, and prerequisites. The results allow a more precise separation of e-tutors activities in VE modules and thus offer concrete proposals for differentiating, improving, and scaling the role of the e-tutor. </span></span></p> </div> <div> <p class="Abstract"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Originality/value:</span></strong><span lang="EN-US"> Students' demand to acquire global skills becomes more and more common. VE modules offer the potential to meet this demand if delivered correctly. <span class="normaltextrun">Previous research in this field partially covers determining factors of e-tutoring, but there is a lack of a concise overview that can serve as a basis for improvement. </span></span></p> </div> Mattis Altmann Lisa-Marie Langesee Victor Berger Maximilian-Alexander Höflich Amira Materna Copyright (c) 2022 Mattis Altmann, Lisa-Marie Langesee, Victor Berger, Maximilian-Alexander Höflich, Amira Materna https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.105-115 Potential of Building Information Modeling in the Project Lifecycle – Reflection Against Iceberg Model https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/59 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The implementation of building information modeling (BIM) has been previously approached from various perspectives, but confusion regarding BIM's full potential and on how to apply it remains. The whole is viewed from distinct perspectives to reflect the full potential and explain the tentatively unused potential.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> The study follows a conceptual research approach in conjunction with a single case study. The BIM iceberg model is utilized as an explanatory synthesis frame to reflect perspectives describing BIM utilization.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> A BIM implementation status framework is developed to describe the BIM utilization maturity in a typical case company. The framework is tested, and indications of support for the logic of the BIM iceberg model are gained. To date, BIM has been used successfully in the early construction project stages (tip of the iceberg, primary BIM). The below-sea-level parts, the collaborative BIM and integrative BIM - the full potential - are rarely recognized.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The presented BIM implementation status shows that there is a gap between the full potential of BIM and the level of BIM utilization in practice.</p> Solmaz Mansoori Harri Haapasalo Janne Harkonen Copyright (c) 2022 Solmaz Mansoori, Harri Haapasalo, Janne Harkonen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.85-104 Consumer Behaviour and Loyalty When Purchasing Sporting Goods https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/61 <div> <p class="P68B1DB1-Normal4"><strong><span lang="EN-GB">Purpose:</span></strong><span lang="EN-GB"> More and more people are involved in sports and active leisure, purchases related to sporting goods therefore increase. Due to diverse offer of sports equipment on the market, customers are becoming more and more demanding, and companies have found themselves facing a multitude of competing providers. The purchase is influenced by various factors, which consumers first analyse in detail and then make a purchase decision. The main purpose of this study is therefore to present the factors, namely how and on what basis consumers make their choices in a wide range of sports equipment, and what they pay more attention to when making further purchases and purchase decisions. </span></p> </div> <div> <p class="P68B1DB1-Normal4"><strong><span lang="EN-US">Study design/methodology/approach: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">We conducted a quantitative survey using an online questionnaire. The questionnaire was published on the 1KA web portal, emailed to friends and acquaintances and shared on social networking sites (Instagram, Facebook). 215 people took part in the survey,</span></p> </div> <div> <p class="P68B1DB1-Normal4"><strong><span lang="IT">Findings: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">We found that respondents buy sporting goods for leisure, hiking, cycling, running, fitness and skiing. They carry out their purchases physically in the shop. The most frequently purchased sporting goods brands, namely Nike and Adidas, are also their favourite sporting goods brands. Respondents describe their brand as having to be of high quality, trustworthy and offer the most for the price. We found that respondents often do not know which brand they were going to buy, even just before entering the store. Once they find a suitable brand, almost half of them find it difficult to switch. </span></p> </div> <div> <p class="P68B1DB1-Normal7"><strong><span lang="IT">Originality/value: </span></strong><span lang="EN-GB">Based on the results, we present some recommendations for companies selling different brands of sporting goods. </span></p> </div> Tina Vukasović Aleksander Petrič Copyright (c) 2022 Tina Vukasović, Aleksander Petrič https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.71-83 The Analysis of Big Data Architecture for Healthcare Service, a Case Study of a Public Hospital https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/31 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Big data is one of the promising technologies which helps healthcare sector improve patient experience, reduce cost of treatment, predict epidemics, and provide competitive healthcare services. The purpose of this research is to study and analyze big data architecture for a public hospital in Thailand.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> This research employs qualitative approach. For data collection and analysis, document analysis is applied as a qualitative method to obtain empirical data. The in-depth interviews of IT manager, doctor, and staff are conducted to confirm the big data architecture and to examine issues in a case study public hospital.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> According to the study, big data architecture for the public hospital comprises data acquisition, data integration, data analytics, data visualization, health data center on cloud, and data governance.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The architecture components and analysis can be applied as a guideline for big data processing and analytics to create a solution for implementing big data in healthcare effectively.</p> Wasinee Noonpakdee Copyright (c) 2021 Wasinee Noonpakdee https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.1-8 The Significance of Digital Marketing Strategies for Continuity of SMEs https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/73 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Digital marketing trends change time from time; therefore, Small and Medium-sized enterprises often face challenges while adopting digital marketing strategies. These challenges are caused by the richness and complexity of tactics to optimize growth, customer engagement, buyer behaviors, and business continuity. This paper focuses on the significance of adopting digital marketing strategies through the 6W Marketing Model for the continuity of Small and Medium Size Enterprises (SMEs). To achieve this goal, the nature of digital marketing strategies for SMEs, such as content marketing, social media marketing, and email marketing, were analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> A thematic literature review was conducted to explore the significance of digital marketing strategies for the continuity of SMEs. We synthesized the available literature that interconnects digital marketing developments with SMEs. The data was obtained through mixed, quantitative, and qualitative methods.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The findings underlined the need and significance of digital marketing awareness for business continuity. Consequently, respondents recognized the role of the 6W marketing model to assist in making informed decisions on which type of digital marketing strategies to employ. Besides, this study ignores and does not consider specifics of the algorithms which give a content ranking. It is imperative to understand the role of these algorithms, how they work and how to deal with them to get the most out of the campaigns. Low-quality or relevancy scores will affect the campaign and bring lower results.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> This paper brings together the challenges and complexity of utilizing digital marketing strategies for SMEs' business continuity. Marketers always search for the best elements for strategic campaigns. Hence, based on the research, the 6W marketing model is proposed to understand better the impact of each digital marketing strategy on business continuity. Besides, the model presents a guide to strategically allocating financial and human resources.</p> Ioseb Gabelaia Lasha Tchelidze Copyright (c) 2022 Ioseb Gabelaia, Lasha Tchelidze https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.187-196 The Impact of the Communicative Behaviour in Social Media on the University Brand Image https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/71 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Communicative behaviour as a state of relationship which influences bilateral feelings, needs, and thoughts for more unambiguous and open communication (Ivanov &amp; Werner, 2010) can affect the brand image. Correspondingly, communication from the side of the universities toward students through social media has a significant role.</p> <p>Facebook is a powerful communicational channel. It effectively and efficiently took control of the business sector, advertising sector, and furthermore, educational realm. It has an enduring influence on the way how people communicate, and as time passes, it becomes an essential part of their lives.</p> <p>The article presents the behaviours of Georgian higher educational institutions in social media, especially on Facebook, and the attitude of the existing or potential students towards communicative behaviour of HEIs. The findings show what kind of influence does communication in Facebook has on customer perception and correspondingly brand image.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> Considering the sensitivity and nature of the research two types of studies were selected. Observing the behaviour of the universities directly on their Facebook pages was selected as the leading type of the research, since the content, as well as their responsiveness and engagement in further communication, is clearly visible visually. In addition, we have decided to listen to the customers themselves. Because of this reason focus groups of existing and potential students were selected to talk about their expectations and the reality in terms of communicative behaviour of the universities.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The results of both, observation as well as focus group research showed the lacks and lapses of communicative behaviour of Georgian universities on social media, specifically on Facebook. The most crucial ones were detected to be the following: delays in distributing valuable information, content not so much significant and interesting for students, indirect answers to student queries or ignoring at all.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Considering the globalizing landscape branding has become crucial for the universities for different reasons. Not only attracting potential students but also for retaining the existing ones and being exceptional they have to follow modern trends. Communication, direct or indirect, being one of the most significant for branding deserves more attention. The value of the current research is showing the expectations of the existing and potential customers and presents the gaps between <br>“what is done” and “what should be done”.</p> Ana Kazaishvili Lia Khmiadashvili Copyright (c) 2022 Ana Kazaishvili, Lia Khmiadashvili https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.135-143 Digital Divide and the Opportunity Dimension of Economic Inequality: The Case of the Republic of Moldova https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/76 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> to analyse how the Republic of Moldova has been coping with digital inequality during the pandemic and the extent to which the digital divide has impacted the economic inequality in the country, as well as to understand what leads to digital disparities.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> In this research, the level of preparedness of the Moldovan households for the digitalization needs that occurred as a result of the pandemic and the both ways impact of the opportunity dimension of economic inequality and digital divide have been analysed, as well as how the lack of ICT utilities deprived certain social layers of economic opportunities during the pandemic. Concurrently, the causes of digital divide in the Republic of Moldova have been analysed to get a deeper understanding of the digital discrepancies that resulted in lack of economic opportunities.&nbsp; For this purpose, the data on the access to mobile phones and computers, notebooks, tablets of Moldovan households and the connection to the Internet have been analysed and the digitalization trend has been contrasted with the disposable-income based economic inequality data (Gini index). The data used for the analysis have been retrieved from the National Bureaus of Statistics (NBS) of the Republic of Moldova and has been segregated per urban and rural areas as well as per quintiles. In addition, in order to understand the cause of digital divide and the impact on economic opportunity, we have added two more variables to the equation and namely, the absolute poverty and the employment indicator for the pandemic period (2019-2020).</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Covid-19 found the Moldovan households unprepared for the digitalization needs generated by the pandemic. Even though deeper in the rural area, the digital divide has enhanced the economic inequality especially in the urban area during the early pandemic period. The high absolute poverty in the rural area and the increasing trend in the urban area, associated with a decreasing employment rate especially in the cities, represent a presumed outcome of the Moldovan digital unpreparedness which enhanced the economic inequality by affecting its opportunity dimension.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The novelty of the research is that the impact and interlink between two types of inequality (digital and economic) in the Republic of Moldova have been analysed with a special focus on the opportunity dimension of economic inequality.</p> Rodica Pisica Copyright (c) 2022 Rodica Pisica https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.167-175 The Influence of Top Athletes’ Personal Factors on the Successful Coordination of Their Dual Careers https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/53 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> In this study, we wanted to determine the effect of personal factors on the successful coordination of a dual career of top Slovenian athletes. Study design/methodology/approach: The survey was prepared and conducted online in 2018, and it lasted until 2019. The questionnaire was sent to over 400 top athletes in Slovenia. We selected the segment of respondents in the Club of Olympians who had a career of top athletes in their active years, during which they did or did not decide on an academic career. The hypothesis was tested based on a survey among athletes who coordinated studies and sport. We used linear multiple regression analysis (the Enter method) to include all selected variables in the model simultaneously.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> In this research, we found out a huge influence of personal factors on the dual career of top athletes. Personal factors that influence the most are well organised time, good work habits, persistence and diligence.<br /><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The conducted research determined the personal factors with the more substantial influence of dual careers of top Athletes in Slovenia.</p> Mateja Gorenc Mojca Braz Copyright (c) 2022 Mateja Gorenc, Mojca Braz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-01-30 2022-01-30 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.47-56 Dialectical View on HPWS and Its Outcomes https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/74 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The article is aiming to define the concept of HPWS and identify possible outcomes.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach: </strong>study is designed to analyze the concept of HPWS and to identify the possible outcomes of HPWS. Method of scientific systematic literature review.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> New forms of HRM and HRM systems are broadly discussed in various scenarios, but mostly with a focus on positive outcomes such as performance-enhancing, employee engagement, organizational affective commitment etc. Nevertheless, all novelties can have as many negative outcomes as positive, but it can be addressed, measured, and assessed only after some time.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> HPWS entered the field in the ’90s and now it is about time to start applying the critical approach in order to understand that HPWS is not universal, it has many variations, many HRM items and different outcomes.</p> Oksana Pavlova Copyright (c) 2022 Oksana Pavlova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-10 2022-06-10 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.117-123 The Role of Logistics in Industrial Side Stream Utilisation – Case: Aqueous Paint Sludge https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/47 <p><strong>Purpose: </strong>In this article, the utilisation of a case side stream, aqueous paint sludge is studied in accordance with the principles of the circular economy. The study's main objective is to find new potential utilisation possibilities for aqueous paint sludge generated in the region and take a closer look at the role of logistics in the industrial side stream utilisation-based business cases and value chains.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> In this article, the utilisation of aqueous paint sludge is studied via a descriptive case study in the context of Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland. The current state of the paint sludge problem was analysed by interviewing five company representatives. In addition, a workshop was organised, and before the workshop, a questionnaire was sent to all invited.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> As a result, the most feasible solutions for aqueous paint sludge utilisation were identified and evaluated from economic, technical, and environmental points of view in the context of this study. In all the proposed solutions, one general challenge was the logistics for narrow material flows from decentralised sources in a relatively large geographical area.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Prior case studies of paint sludge utilisation as a raw material have been conducted, but the logistics have not played a significant role in the studies. Logistics has been an important part of the circular economy in the literature. This study reaffirms this notion and finds logistics to have an important and decisive role in industrial side stream utilisation-based business cases and value chains.</p> Tero Leppänen Pasi Rönkkö Harri Haapasalo Pekka Tervonen Copyright (c) 2021 Tero Leppänen, Pasi Rönkkö, Harri Haapasalo, Pekka Tervonen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.17-32 Responses of Exporting SMEs to Institutional Voids: The Case of Lithuania https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/75 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The aim of this study is to explore the responses of Lithuanian exporting small and medium enterprises (SMEs) to institutional voids using the typology of strategic responses to institutional processes of Oliver (1991).</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> The qualitative research case study method was selected by implementing semi-structured interviews with directors and founders of Lithuanian exporting manufacturing SMEs to collect the primary data.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Drawing on the semi-structured interviews, the study identified responses of the Lithuanian exporting manufacturing SMEs to institutional voids that portrayed two main strategies: acquiesce and avoidance.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The results provide contextual contributions exploring firms' strategic responses to institutional voids, identifying the most fatal institutional voids faced by SMEs within the sector.</p> Eglė Mėta Šimkūnienė Copyright (c) 2022 Eglė Mėta Šimkūnienė https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.157-166 A New Supplement to Spiritual Leadership from Spiritual Intelligence Conceptions and Etymologic Research https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/19 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> This study identifies, compiles and compares different definitions of Spiritual Intelligence to detect common principles, it reviews the historical emergence of the word “spiritual” and proposes a new construct of Spiritual Intelligence.</p> <p><strong>Methodology/approach:</strong> A literature review and a systematic creation of principles have been applied.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> It has been detected that the original meaning of “spiritual” has not been considered in the existing research. From the original meaning of “spiritual” a new construct for Spiritual Intelligence has been derived and is proposed for further research.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> The origins of “spiritual” have not been studied before, hence the new construct of Spiritual Intelligence will be the new fundament for further research</p> Michael Hagemann Copyright (c) 2021 Michael Hagemann https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-01-01 2022-01-01 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.9-15 Education Staff indicators for Slovenia https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/80 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> The paper deals with identifying available indicators to predict future education staff needs in Slovenia.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> We used SORS's secondary data to analyse and provide an overview of indicators that can be used to forecast the education staff numbers in the future. We focused on the current number of education staff at different levels of education, the number of enrolled in formal education, number of enrolled students and graduates of educational sciences and teacher education, number of vacancies for education, and future population projections in certain age groups that education management must consider when planning staffing needs in the future.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> Our findings show that enrolled generation in primary (basic) education is expanding in their number which will further increase a demand for upper secondary and tertiary education in the future 3 to 5 years. Number of education staff has followed this trend, and has increased by 5 % in the last 5 years, mostly in primary education sector. The needs for education staff will increase in the near future in Slovenia. Demography outlook indicates that several changes must be implemented in the education and labour market sectors.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Education staff needs were not yet addressed by the researchers for the case of Slovenia, however the future trends indicate that it is worth exploring for the purpose of efficient and effective educational planning at the system management level.</p> Vesna Skrbinjek Copyright (c) 2022 Vesna Skrbinjek https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-21 2022-06-21 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.197-205 Identifying an Efficiency Productivity Model for Faculties with DEA Benchmarking Technique https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/63 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Many universities in Thailand aim to raise their ranking; thus, university administrators set the target outputs for their institutions. However, the university-level targets may differ from those at the faculty levels because the inherent nature of academic fields and faculty capacity to produce outputs may not be considered. Therefore, we propose a model to determine possible target values for faculty outputs with weak efficiency by benchmarking the university under study with one of the leading universities in Thailand. As a result, the evidence-based target values allow inefficient faculties to know what outputs they need to improve under the assumption that "if each faculty improves their productivity to reach a target value, the university can rank higher." This can lead to a more realistic and achievable target instead of a single target across all faculties.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> Due to inherent differences among faculties, they are clustered by subject areas with the hierarchical cluster analysis to reduce bias. Then an efficiency score of each faculty is computed via the Data Envelopment Analysis.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The faculties of the university under study are clustered into three subject areas: 1) agricultural science and technology management, 2) engineering and ecology, and 3) social sciences and humanities. The DEA technique provides the slack values to be used in target settings that mitigate the bias from different capabilities on producing outputs across subject areas. For the faculties in agricultural science and technology management, social sciences, and humanities, the inadequacy of performed research and teaching operations are essential indicators, i.e., the percentage of the sum of slack values in both aspects is more than 80%. In engineering and ecology, the essential indicators (i.e., the percentage of the sum of slack values in both aspects is 91.10%) are related to teaching and international outlook operations. However, the teaching operation is the most critical aspect (i.e., the maximum value of the percentage sum of each subject area's slack values is 42.23%) that all subject areas should be focused on for improvement.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> Our approach can provide a quantitative decision support tool that allows university administrators to set realistic operational policies according to evidence-based target values tailored for each subject area.</p> Sasarose Jaijit Punpiti Piamsa-nga Nalina Phisanbut Juta Pichitlamken Copyright (c) 2022 Sasarose Jaijit, Punpiti Piamsa-nga , Nalina Phisanbut, Juta Pichitlamken https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-04-19 2022-04-19 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.57-70 Anomaly Detection in Time Series for Smart Agriculture https://toknowpress.net/submission/index.php/ijmkl/article/view/77 <p><strong>Purpose:</strong> Enormous amounts of data from sensors and automatic systems is available to contemporary managers of farms and agricultural enterprises. Therefore, the automated monitoring of the basic processes is becoming more and more necessary. Manager of a modern agricultural company is responsible for his decisions but must have accurate and transparent support in the decision making process. The reports based on wide-scale of mathematical and statistical approaches integrated to information system can provide a suitable hierarchy of alerts concerning important indicators. This paper provides a brief overview of methods usable for anomaly detection in time series together with a basic (and open) possibilities of their implementation.</p> <p><strong>Study design/methodology/approach:</strong> A brief overview of the most important and sufficiently flexible modern methods for detection anomaly detection in time series with focus particularly on agriculture.</p> <p><strong>Findings:</strong> The paper can serve as a starting point for creation of alerting in agricultural information systems as a support for managerial decision making. In connection to the extremely fast development in data and information spheres in smart agriculture within the last two decades develop also the new approaches for prediction in time series and search for unexpected fluctuations in their course. Besides the traditional mathematical and statistical approaches new methods emerge which are tailor-made to the internet environment and environment of social networks.</p> <p><strong>Originality/value:</strong> This basic overview can be used for a primary orientation in the problem and can serve as a basis for creation of automated alerting system. It is always necessary to remember the domain of use, economic relations, structure and hierarchy of time series and their periodicity, seasonality and cycles.</p> Vladislav Bína Jitka Bartošová Vladimír Přibyl Copyright (c) 2022 Vladislav Bína, Jitka Bartošová, Vladimír Přibyl https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0 2022-06-20 2022-06-20 11 10.53615/2232-5697.11.177-186